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伊索比亚的民主 不会随欧巴马空降而至

Barack and Michelle Obama greet Ethiopian PM Hailemariam Desalegn and Ms. Roman Tesfaye at a U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit in 2014. Official White House Photo by Amanda Lucidon, released to public domain.

在2014年的美国─非洲领导人高峰会,欧巴马总统与夫人接见了埃塞俄比亚总理海尔马里亚姆‧德萨连(Hailemariam Desalegn)及其夫人罗曼‧特斯法耶(Roman Tesfaye)。(图为白宫摄影师Amanda Lucidon所摄官方照片)

美国总统欧巴马在7月缔造了历史,成为第一位到访埃塞俄比亚的在位总统,同时在非洲联盟前发表演说

部分人权拥护者指控,欧巴马总统这一次访问埃塞俄比亚的计划,将带给埃塞俄比亚政府名不符实的赞誉。埃塞俄比亚政府打压当地媒体工作者,造成了数十人遭到拘留甚至被判处多年刑期,其中有六位为全球之声社群的成员。执政党于今年五月的大选获得了全数的国会席次,遭国人怀疑执政当局涉及操弄选举制度。

于欧巴马总统到访前,当局释放了几位部落客与记者,失望及愤怒的声浪才渐趋和缓。

President Barack Obama and Ethiopia Prime Minister Hailemariam Desalegn hold a press conference at the National Palace

巴拉克·欧巴马与海尔马里亚姆·德萨莱共同主持记者会。(图为白宫官方照片。)

访问期间,欧巴马总统及埃塞俄比亚总理海尔马里亚姆‧德萨连(Hailemariam Desalegn)会同埃塞俄比亚杰出人物参加国宴,其中有艺术家、运动员以及政治家。然而,埃塞俄比亚的蓝党领导人Yilikal Getnet回绝了国宴邀请,表示「朱门酒肉臭;路有冻死骨。」

埃塞俄比亚─奥罗莫事务拥护者Jawar Mohammed在脸书上发表对于欧巴马支持当局的不满:

The US is now firmly and officially endorsing authoritarianism in Ethiopia

When we look at the statements by US officials Donald Booth (former ambassador to Ethiopia who said the 2010 election was good enough), Wendy Sherman (Deputy Secretary of State), Susan Rice (national security adviser) and now president Obama who in his speech twice declared the regime is democratically elected, we reach a conclusion that the United States [has] decided to publicly align itself with the Ethiopian authoritarian regime, both in words and deeds. The US has always supported this regime practically through massive aid, however, even George Bush's administration maintained verbal criticism of the authoritarian nature of the regime. The US has now gone blunt as Obama's administration has officially and openly endorsed the ‘developmental dictatorship’ narrative. Why is that?

1) Somalia- after the attempt to replace Ethiopia by Kenya and Uganda as its own extended hand for messing with Somalia's internal affairs failed to produce result, America is now back to the old tactic of fully relying on Ethiopian army and intelligence.

2) China- While US remains increasingly dependent on Ethiopia for its security interest, China has developed unmatched influence in the economy. William Davison nicely summarized this reality in his latest report, writing ” When Barack Obama became the first sitting President of the United States to touch down in Ethiopia’s capital on Sunday evening, it was at an airport being upgraded using a $250-million Chinese loan. His convoy then zipped along a six-lane urban expressway, also funded by the Export-Import Bank of China, to Meskel Square, where the two lines of a new Chinese-built electric railway intersect. Towering over the capital’s southwest, he may have spotted the headquarters of the African Union, a $200 million giveaway from China’s leaders.”

Such investment gives China significant influence not only over Ethiopia but also the rest Africa through the African Union which is located there.

美国俨然以官方立场为当局政权背书。

看着美国的官方声明,唐纳‧布思(Donald Booth,前驻埃塞俄比亚大使)认为2010年的大选结果已然够好了,有温迪‧雪蔓(Wendy Sherman,国务院副秘书长)、苏珊·莱斯(Susan Rice,国家安全顾问),最后加上在公开演说中两度声明当局政权乃经由民主程序选出的欧巴马,从行为与言语上再再显示美国早已决定公然与当局政权结盟。美国向来透过大量的资助作为扶持政权的手段,然而,就连前总统小布什任内都还会表面上批评当局政权,美国现今在欧巴马的统治下,何以正式、公开支持「发展式专制」政权?

索马里─美国近年来想以肯尼亚、乌干达取代埃塞俄比亚,作为其干预索马里的傀儡政权未果,决定回头沿用老战术,完全仰赖埃塞俄比亚的军力及情报。

中国─在美国基于国安利益而更加依赖埃塞俄比亚的同时,中国在经济上已展现不容小觑的影响力。William Davison在他最新的报告中为我们总结了这项事实:在星期天晚上欧巴马以美国首位在位总统之姿所降落的埃塞俄比亚首都的机场,是靠中国资金贷款 2.5亿升级而来;他的车队所行经的六线城市快速道路,也是由中国进出口银行出资铺建;来到梅斯克尔广场,中国新建造的两条电铁交会于此。之后他可能会注意到矗立在首都西南方的非洲联盟总部,便是由中国国家主席捐赠两亿元的成品。

大把的投资,让中国不只在埃塞俄比亚站稳脚步,也透过位于此地的非洲联盟影响着同位于非洲的其他国家。

回应Jawar的评论,Amin Kedir建议

Dont depend on external body to bring change, justice, democracy, etc for your internal issues. Mr. Obama come for his own benefit (his country benefit), dont expect more changes from Mr.Obama.

千万别仰赖外来政权为国内议题带来改变、正义或民等。欧巴马先生是为了自身(国家)的利益而来,不要对他寄予厚望。

Kedir Tibeso也不对欧巴马抱有期待

Dictators are always dictators, and america want ethiopia for its own benefit. i do not expect any thing from obama.

独裁者就是独裁者,美国也是为了自身利益前来伊索比亚。我并不会对欧巴马抱有任何期待。

综合Jawar的评论, Mohammed Siraj也表示了意见

Excellent analysis. Those who anticipated long for America to liberate them, be informed that America [is a] pragmatic country that run after its own interest. This is a good opportunity to get calm and think [about] the ineffective path being traveled so long.

精辟的见解。一堆人老是期待美国解放他们,之后才晓得美国终究现实,只做对自己有利的事。该是时候冷静下来思考:走这么一段路却徒劳无功,意义何在?

Abo Ethio指出,问题不在欧巴马身上,真正的问题在于以前都靠种族凝聚为反对派,却缺少因意识型态而团结的反对势力行动:

As long as z opposition groups are not united and show their strength (tangible), USA will continue to supporter z opperssor. You should hv to make note on what he spoke in Kenya, regarding ethnic based politics……. We will not have a strong alternative as long as we continue to organize our politics based on ethnic groups rather than the well founded political ideology n understanding of z geo-politics.

只要反对派不团结,去形成一股反对势力,美国仍旧会继续支持打压民主的政权。我们该去注意欧巴马针对基于种族的政治型态,在肯尼亚所发表的意见……。若只靠种族去组织政治势力,而不利用既有的政治意识型态、地缘政治脉络,势力就不会有壮大的一天。

许多对这次拜访提出意见的评论者下了总结,埃塞俄比亚人不该企盼美国为他们建立民主政府,国家的命运应当自己掌握。于是Falmataa Lamii写道

[…]This is more than enough for us that USA Compromise Democracy with Security!! They are running after their national security. They don’t care about innocent people killed and jailed by those dictators! The western world (USA) always pleased dancing over the dead bodies the innocent people and wining of innocent blood!!

Therefore no more begging USA to generously give us Democracy!!! The western world (USA) officials (OBAMA) are not daddies of Democracy. But it is the result of united hands of the people! The united hands of our people are stronger than that of Western world (USA)!

Let us do that and reign the democracy we are longing for!!!!

[…]对于美国为了自身国家安全而牺牲掉埃塞俄比亚的民主,我们受够了!他们只会按照国家安全行事,根本不在乎死于独裁者或因而身陷囹圄的无辜人民!西方国家(美国)只会踩着尸体狂欢、畅饮无辜者的鲜血!

别再乞求美国慷慨解囊施舍我们民主了!西方国家(美国)官方(欧巴马)不会是民主之父。民主是人民团结的成果!我们连手的力量绝对比西方世界(美国)来得强!

让我们携手同行,为我们长久以来渴忘的民主奋斗!

Adam特别提到欧巴马在非洲联盟公开演说时所提的支持总统任期限制:

Great speech Mr President. I hope that The African Union council must adopt new policy for African governors or promote maximum two terms in office for all African President. This will help growth and developments of the continent.

非常精彩的演说。我希望非洲联盟议会将采用您为各国首领建议的新政策,或推动非洲总统仅得连任一次的限制,进而改善非洲大陆的成长与发展。

注:本篇贴文于2015年8月10日自脸书删除。

若想进一步了解欧巴马拜访埃塞俄比亚期间发生的大小事,请到Horn Affairs blog阅读精选要闻


校对:YK Chen

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