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类别: 中东与北非, Iran 伊朗, Food 饮食, 公民媒体, 艺术和文化
By Joe mon bkk - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38878979

照片为 Joe mon bkk 个人作品,依据创用 CC BY-SA 4.0 [1] 授权使用

波斯料理的秘诀之一就是要了解,有些食物被认为是温热的,有些则被认为是寒凉的。那到底是什么意思?全球之声请了波斯料理无国界(Persian Fusion) [2]网站的专家 Maryam Sinaiee 来为大家解释这样的概念:

Hot and cold don’t really refer to the temperature of food or its ingredients, they are rather descriptions of inherent properties in food ingredients that cause changes in the body.

The concept is based on Unani medicine [3] [an ancient Greek medicinal tradition], according to which, individuals differ in nature too [with] some having a hot nature and others, cold. These attributes are associated with the color and temperature of the skin, temperament, etc.


这个概念是源于尤那尼医学(Unani medicine) [3],[一种古老的希腊传统医学]。根据这样的医学传统,每个人的体质也都不同──有的人是热性体质,有的人则是寒性体质。这些属性与皮肤的颜色及温度、人的性情等等都有关联。


Sinaiee 解释:

It’s quite elaborate and complicated so I’ll be giving you a very simplified version. Generally, high-energy, high-fat foods and most spices are considered hotMany vegetables and grains, such as rice, are considered cold. The aim of the Persian cook is to balance hot and cold ingredients in a dish as components of a meal, or to correct the imbalance [that is] causing trouble to an individual, with food.



Most Iranians, at least the older generation, just know these things or ask more knowledgeable people around them. When things are too difficult to address by home remedies, a traditional doctor may be consulted too.

For instance, everybody knows that chocolate and nuts are hot. So if a person has a rash, they’ll immediately tell him to hold off these foods. They might tell them to drink distilled chicory plant water, because it has a cooling effect on the body and will help get rid of the rash.

Coriander (cilantro) and sour plums are considered as cold. So if a person has fever, they’ll usually be given a coriander and plum soup (ash-e geshniz ba alu) to help with the fever.



芫荽(即香菜)与波斯青梅被认为是寒凉的。所以如果有人发烧,通常会被开给芫荽梅子汤(ash-e geshniz ba alu)来帮助退烧。

开始觉得有点道理了吗?伊朗版的老祖母鸡汤就是芫荽梅子汤。听起来满好吃的! Sinaeei 又说:

Traditional dishes are usually very balanced, though. Take fesenjoon, a scrumptious Persian stew of chicken or duck in walnut and pomegranate sauce. Walnuts are considered hot and pomegranates cold. Or rice with broad beans (fava beans) which is called baghali polo [4]. Broad beans are considered as very cold, rice is cold too, so the dish is balanced with the addition of dill, a hot herb. The same goes with fish, a cold meat. It’s usually eaten with rice filled with herbs like dill, as well as with garlic, another hot ingredient. Yogurt, a cold food, will never, ever, appear alongside fish on a Persian table.

不过,传统波斯菜通常都平衡得不错。就拿一道美味的波斯炖菜(fesenjoon,用核桃与石榴酱汁炖的鸡或鸭)来说好了──核桃被认为是热性的,而石榴则被认为是寒性的;或者[来看看]被称为 baghali polo [4] 的蚕豆饭──蚕豆被认为是非常寒凉的,米也是寒性的,所以这道菜里会加上莳萝(一种热性的香草植物)来作为平衡。鱼──寒性的肉──也是同样的道理:通常鱼会配上加了很多莳萝之类的香草植物还有蒜头(另一种热性食材)的饭一起食用。在波斯餐桌上,优格──属于寒性食物──就永远、绝对不会和鱼一起出现。

Duck Fesenjoon by Flickr User Insatiablemunch. Some rights reserved [5]

核桃石榴炖鸭(Duck Fesenjoon)(照片来自 Flickr 用户 Insatiablemunch,依据创用 CC BY 2.0 授权使用)


Persians love to eat tender, new season, romaine lettuce hearts with a syrup made from wine vinegar and sugar. That’s because lettuce is cold and the syrup’s heat will balance it.



Generally, hot dishes are served during the colder seasons. Normally, the rich and luxurious fesenjoon is saved for colder months, unless there is a big feast with many dishes to choose from. In summer, people usually tend to eat food of a colder nature — [dishes that are] less rich and made with lots of vegetables, cucumbers and yogurt.



After a meal with a cold dish like fish, a Persian family will usually serve a hot dessert made with lots of sugar, fat, and spices such as cinnamon. An example is khagineh, a sort of big pancake torn into pieces and drowned in a saffron-spiked syrup.

Yogurt is often served with or stirred into certain other dishes if they are hot. In my grandparent’s house, there was a bowl of ground, dried, bitter orange peel mixed with ginger (both hot ingredients) and sugar on the table too, as if all the precautions that my grandmother (a fabulous cook) took were not enough. My grandfather took a spoonful after most meals, presumably because he considered most food as cold.

在吃完有像鱼这种寒性菜肴的一餐之后,波斯家庭通常会上一道多糖、高脂,还加了肉桂一类香料的热性甜点。 Khagineh── 一种把大煎饼撕成小片、浸在搀了番红花的糖浆里的点心──就是一例。



对于首次见识到伊朗大餐的人,其食物之丰盛可能会让人不知所措──但那并不妨碍许多波斯料理爱好者在 Instagram 上分享他们的美食照。

在这张由 Instagram 用户 shore.coli [6] 所分享的照片中,有很多热性与寒性食物能满足各种需求:

غذایی مانوس با طبیعت ، از دریا تا کوه و جنگل… تنها گیلانیان اند که می دانند چگونه طبیعت را به لذت تبدیل کنند عکس از میهمان عزیزمان: @vanilla.bakery [7]

A photo posted by رستوران محلی شور کولی (@shore.coli) on

Nature's bounty…from the sea to the mountains…an enjoyment of nature unique to Gilanis [people from the Northern Iranian province of Gilan]. Photo from one of our guests @vanilla.bakery.

大自然的赐予⋯⋯从山珍到海味⋯⋯[伊朗北部]吉兰省人(Gilanis)独享的大自然[恩赐]。我们一位客人在 @vanilla.bakery(香草烘焙坊)所拍摄的照片。

这张蚕豆饭──寒热妙搭──的照片,是由 Instagram 用户 foodie_express [8] 上传的:

M A H I C H E 🍗🍚 – Tender Lamb Shank, Slowly Cooked In Saffron & Tomato Sauce with Persian Rice Layered with Broad Beans & Fresh Dill #Persian #Iran #mahiche #kebab #persianfood #persianrice #nihari [9]

A photo posted by @foodie_express on

MAHICHE 🍗🍚──在番红花与番茄酱汁中慢炖至软嫩的羊腿,配上蚕豆与新鲜莳萝满满的波斯米饭#Persian(波斯) #Iran(伊朗) #mahiche(慢炖羊腿)#kebab(炖肉)#persianfood(波斯食物) #persianrice(波斯米饭) #nihari(带骨炖肉)

这张萝蔓芯蘸上薄荷醋糖浆(sekanjabin)的照片是由 Instagram 用户 vida.rahimzadeh [10] 所分享:

. . #كاهو #سكنجبين يكى از #نوستالژى هاى منه ☺️😌 . آيا شما هم همچنين حسى نسبت بهش داريد😉 [11]

A photo posted by @vida.rahimzadeh on

 #Lettuce #sekanjabin [vinegar and mint syrup]…one of my best #memories ☺️😌. Do you also share that feeling 😉

#Lettuce(萝蔓)#sekanjabin [薄荷醋糖浆]⋯⋯我最美好的 #memories(回忆)之一 ☺️😌。你也感受到了吗 😉?