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诺鲁禁止澳洲广播公司采访太平洋岛国论坛

太平洋岛国论坛(Pacific Island Forum)与会代表(摄于 2013 年,马绍尔群岛(Marshall Islands))(照片来自太平洋岛国论坛秘书处的脸书(Facebook)专页)

(原文发表于 2018 年七月十三日)

诺鲁(Nauru)政府〔七月初〕曾下达禁令,申明将不会允许澳洲广播公司(Australian Broadcasting Corporation,ABC)入境采访今年九月的太平洋岛国论坛高峰会议。诺鲁当局指控,澳洲公共广电机构 ABC 立场偏颇、报导不实。

这场年度峰会,是大洋洲各国元首齐聚一堂,讨论区域重要事务的场合。

今年七月二日,诺鲁政府发表了一则声明,表示由于「接待能力非常有限」,所以必须对参加峰会的人数加以限制。此番声明也特别提及 ABC,以及何以会有相关禁令:

…no representative from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation will be granted a visa to enter Nauru under any circumstances, due to this organisation’s blatant interference in Nauru’s domestic politics prior to the 2016 election, harassment of and lack of respect towards our President in Australia, false and defamatory allegations against members of our Government, and continued biased and false reporting about our country. It is our right, as it is the right of every nation, to choose who is allowed to enter.

⋯⋯无论如何,诺鲁将不会核发签证给任何 ABC 代表。因为该组织在2016 年诺鲁大选之前,公然干预诺鲁内政;在诺鲁总统到访澳洲期间,对总统有骚扰、不敬之举;还曾诬蔑诺鲁政府官员;并持续对我国做出充满偏见的不实报导。就像其他国家一样,我们有权决定要让谁(或不让谁)入境。

在2016 年,ABC 曾播出过一部纪录片,说是澳洲政府委由诺鲁代为管理、收容寻求庇护人士的境外中心,有折磨〔难民〕、虐待儿童等情事;ABC 亦有报导指称,诺鲁总统及其手下一些部长级官员,自一名澳洲磷矿业者处收受贿赂。诺鲁将 ABC 的两起报导皆斥为「种族歧视」以及「不客观的政治宣传」。

有几十年的时间,诺鲁这个小岛国都是个矿区;到了 1980 年代,磷酸盐矿藏耗竭,于是诺鲁〔只得〕接受澳洲援助、帮助澳洲管理一座〔设置于诺鲁的〕移民收容中心。

对于诺鲁政府的决定,ABC 新闻总监 Gaven Morris 批道

The Nauruan Government should not be allowed to dictate who fills the positions in an Australian media pool.

It can hardly claim it is ‘welcoming the media’ if it dictates who that media will be and bans Australia's public broadcaster.

诺鲁政府无权对谁能成为澳洲记者团的一员指手画脚。

如果诺鲁得以片面决定哪些媒体才能报导峰会或禁止 ABC〔加入记者团〕,那么诺鲁简直称不上是「欢迎媒体」。

诺鲁政府很快便做出回应,称 ABC 的声明相当「傲慢、无礼,越加突显了其自以为是、不把人放在眼里的心态。」诺鲁政府还说:

We remind the ABC that we – like Australia – have every right to refuse a visa to any person or organisation that we believe is not of good character, and that entry into our country is a privilege not a right. The Australian media do not decide who enters Nauru.

我们要提醒 ABC,我们和澳洲一样,完全有权拒发签证给任何我们认为名声欠佳的个人或组织;并且,入境诺鲁是一种优待、而非权利。谁能进入诺鲁,不是由澳洲媒体说了算。

〔时任〕澳洲总理〔滕博尔(Malcolm Turnbull)〕说,诺鲁的决定「令人遗憾」,但拒绝出手干预、声援 ABC。

澳洲媒体从业人员的联盟组织 MEAA( Media, Entertainment & Arts Alliance)认为,政府应该同诺鲁方面好好了解此事:

This is an attack on press freedom that our government needs to condemn in the strongest possible terms. Recognising the sovereignty of another nation does not extend to accepting they have the right to prevent free and open reporting.

对于此一打击新闻自由的举动,我们的政府应当做出最强烈的谴责。承认另一个国家的主权,不代表认可他们有权妨碍公开报导的自由。

澳洲的国会记者团(Federal Parliamentary Press Gallery)则扬言要联合抵制这场于诺鲁举办的峰会:

If the ban is not reversed, the media pool will be disbanded. If one cannot go, none will go.

We oppose the Nauru edict because it is wrong in this instance and because it sets a dangerous precedent. What other Australians might be banned from a similar group by another government in future? We stand for a free press, not a banned one.

如果诺鲁不撤回禁令,我们会解散记者团。如果有人不能去,就全都不去。

我们反对诺鲁此一禁令,不单因为这样做是错的,也因为这会创下危险的先例。将来还有哪些澳洲人,可能会在类似场合,被另一个国家给拒于门外?我们支持新闻自由,不支持新闻钳制。

澳洲第九频道的〔新闻分析节目〕Red Ink 也表达了对 ABC 的支持

ABC is our competitor, and a tough one at that, but there is something bigger at stake here than beating a rival.

ABC 不只是我们的竞争对手,还是个强劲的对手,但眼前我们有比胜过对手更重要的事。

针对 ABC 的禁令也受到其他区域媒体的抨击。纽西兰的国会记者团(New Zealand Parliamentary Press Gallery)便说道

This decision follows already restrictive conditions, limiting the number of journalists who can attend this important regional summit. While infrastructure constrains play a role in limited pooling numbers, we are appalled by this attempt to control media coverage.

先是以种种理由,限制得以采访区域重要峰会的记者人数,然后又是这样的禁令。虽然当地基础设施的局限对记者团人数是有一定的影响,但于此一企图控制媒体报导之举,我们实感震惊。

万那杜每日邮报(Vanuatu Daily Post)媒体总监 Dan McGarry,说明了为何该报社九月将不会派员前往诺鲁:

I instructed the Daily Post’s editor to withdraw our reporter from the Vanuatu media delegation allotted to covering this event.

This isn’t a self-righteous, moralising action. It’s a survival tactic. If we allow ourselves to get into a situation where our ability to report is predicated on how positive our coverage is, then we can’t do our job.

我已吩咐每日邮报的编辑,自万那杜媒体代表团召回我们原本分派去采访峰会的记者。

这不是在自命清高,只是一种生存策略。如果我们让自己陷入「我们能报导什么、不能报导什么,取决于我们的报导是否正面」这样的处境,那么我们就什么也做不了了。

太平洋岛屿新闻协会(Pacific Island News Association)敦促诺鲁重新考虑此一决定,以促进媒体多元发展:

The Pacific is on display and can be proud of its media diversity and efforts to strengthen our communities through dialogue and communication.

全世界正在看着太平洋地区,而我们可以以区域媒体之多元,以及成员间透过对话、交流来强化区域〔合作〕之努力而自豪。

国际记者联盟(International Federation of Journalists)说,诺鲁已然创下一个危险的先例

Governments, leaders and politicians must remember the role of the media, and not use their powers to control and stifle press freedom. The Nauru Government is setting a dangerous precedent by barring ABC journalists’ from covering the Pacific Island Forum.

各国政府、领袖和政界人士,必须谨记媒体所扮演的角色,而不是运用他们的权力来操控、钳制新闻自由。诺鲁政府禁止 ABC 记者采访太平洋岛国论坛之举,是在创下危险的先例。

第四十九届太平洋岛国论坛由诺鲁主办,将于〔明日揭幕〕。

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