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波斯厨房的冷暖奥秘

By Joe mon bkk - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38878979

照片为 Joe mon bkk 个人作品,依据创用 CC BY-SA 4.0 授权使用

波斯料理的秘诀之一就是要了解,有些食物被认为是温热的,有些则被认为是寒凉的。那到底是什么意思?全球之声请了波斯料理无国界(Persian Fusion)网站的专家 Maryam Sinaiee 来为大家解释这样的概念:

Hot and cold don’t really refer to the temperature of food or its ingredients, they are rather descriptions of inherent properties in food ingredients that cause changes in the body.

The concept is based on Unani medicine [an ancient Greek medicinal tradition], according to which, individuals differ in nature too [with] some having a hot nature and others, cold. These attributes are associated with the color and temperature of the skin, temperament, etc.

温热与寒凉指的并不是食物或食材实际上的温度,而是在描述食材本身的特性会对人体带来什么改变。

这个概念是源于尤那尼医学(Unani medicine),[一种古老的希腊传统医学]。根据这样的医学传统,每个人的体质也都不同──有的人是热性体质,有的人则是寒性体质。这些属性与皮肤的颜色及温度、人的性情等等都有关联。

在实际应用上,这表示如果你有被归为「热性」的健康问题,你就会吃点寒凉的食物来调和一下。反之亦然:如果你是「寒性」体质,吃太多寒凉的食物可能会让你[的身体]更加失衡。

Sinaiee 解释:

It’s quite elaborate and complicated so I’ll be giving you a very simplified version. Generally, high-energy, high-fat foods and most spices are considered hotMany vegetables and grains, such as rice, are considered cold. The aim of the Persian cook is to balance hot and cold ingredients in a dish as components of a meal, or to correct the imbalance [that is] causing trouble to an individual, with food.

这说来是满复杂的,所以我会给你一个很简略的说法。一般而言,高能量、高脂的食物以及多数香料,都被认为是温热的;许多蔬菜和谷类(像是米)则被认为是寒凉的。一个波斯厨子的任务,就是要平衡一餐中每道菜里热性与寒性的食材,或是用食物去导正一个人[体内]失衡的状况。

但是不是每个伊朗厨子都有张热性与寒性食物表,或是每个用餐者的需求表呢?

Most Iranians, at least the older generation, just know these things or ask more knowledgeable people around them. When things are too difficult to address by home remedies, a traditional doctor may be consulted too.

For instance, everybody knows that chocolate and nuts are hot. So if a person has a rash, they’ll immediately tell him to hold off these foods. They might tell them to drink distilled chicory plant water, because it has a cooling effect on the body and will help get rid of the rash.

Coriander (cilantro) and sour plums are considered as cold. So if a person has fever, they’ll usually be given a coriander and plum soup (ash-e geshniz ba alu) to help with the fever.

多数伊朗人──至少是老一辈的伊朗人──都懂得这些,不然也会去问身边比较懂的人。当状况用家庭偏方无法处理的时候,大家也可能会去请教传统的大夫。

比方说,大家都知道巧克力和坚果是热性的。所以如果有人出疹子,他们会马上叫他暂时不要吃这些东西。他们可能也会叫患者饮用蒸馏过的菊苣水,因为它有冷却身体的作用,能帮助消疹。

芫荽(即香菜)与波斯青梅被认为是寒凉的。所以如果有人发烧,通常会被开给芫荽梅子汤(ash-e geshniz ba alu)来帮助退烧。

开始觉得有点道理了吗?伊朗版的老祖母鸡汤就是芫荽梅子汤。听起来满好吃的! Sinaeei 又说:

Traditional dishes are usually very balanced, though. Take fesenjoon, a scrumptious Persian stew of chicken or duck in walnut and pomegranate sauce. Walnuts are considered hot and pomegranates cold. Or rice with broad beans (fava beans) which is called baghali polo. Broad beans are considered as very cold, rice is cold too, so the dish is balanced with the addition of dill, a hot herb. The same goes with fish, a cold meat. It’s usually eaten with rice filled with herbs like dill, as well as with garlic, another hot ingredient. Yogurt, a cold food, will never, ever, appear alongside fish on a Persian table.

不过,传统波斯菜通常都平衡得不错。就拿一道美味的波斯炖菜(fesenjoon,用核桃与石榴酱汁炖的鸡或鸭)来说好了──核桃被认为是热性的,而石榴则被认为是寒性的;或者[来看看]被称为 baghali polo 的蚕豆饭──蚕豆被认为是非常寒凉的,米也是寒性的,所以这道菜里会加上莳萝(一种热性的香草植物)来作为平衡。鱼──寒性的肉──也是同样的道理:通常鱼会配上加了很多莳萝之类的香草植物还有蒜头(另一种热性食材)的饭一起食用。在波斯餐桌上,优格──属于寒性食物──就永远、绝对不会和鱼一起出现。

Duck Fesenjoon by Flickr User Insatiablemunch. Some rights reserved

核桃石榴炖鸭(Duck Fesenjoon)(照片来自 Flickr 用户 Insatiablemunch,依据创用 CC BY 2.0 授权使用)

换句话说,温热与寒凉的分类也有助于平衡餐食:

Persians love to eat tender, new season, romaine lettuce hearts with a syrup made from wine vinegar and sugar. That’s because lettuce is cold and the syrup’s heat will balance it.

波斯人喜欢吃新出的萝蔓嫩芯配上酒醋糖浆。那是因为萝蔓是寒性的,而这种糖浆的热性能够平衡掉这样的寒凉。

不令人意外地,夏日与冬日都各有其必备的特殊食物──夏天吃寒凉的,冬天吃温热的:

Generally, hot dishes are served during the colder seasons. Normally, the rich and luxurious fesenjoon is saved for colder months, unless there is a big feast with many dishes to choose from. In summer, people usually tend to eat food of a colder nature — [dishes that are] less rich and made with lots of vegetables, cucumbers and yogurt.

一般说来,热性的菜肴是在比较冷的季节吃的。按惯例,味道浓郁丰厚的核桃石榴炖鸡(或鸭)是留到较冷的月分才吃,除非有什么盛宴,需要有多道菜肴让人尽情挑选享用。在夏天,大家通常偏好选择比较寒凉的食物──使用大量蔬菜、黄瓜和优格,较为清淡[的菜肴]。

这种温热寒凉的原则也适用于甜点──而优格是用来平衡热性食物的不二选择:

After a meal with a cold dish like fish, a Persian family will usually serve a hot dessert made with lots of sugar, fat, and spices such as cinnamon. An example is khagineh, a sort of big pancake torn into pieces and drowned in a saffron-spiked syrup.

Yogurt is often served with or stirred into certain other dishes if they are hot. In my grandparent’s house, there was a bowl of ground, dried, bitter orange peel mixed with ginger (both hot ingredients) and sugar on the table too, as if all the precautions that my grandmother (a fabulous cook) took were not enough. My grandfather took a spoonful after most meals, presumably because he considered most food as cold.

在吃完有像鱼这种寒性菜肴的一餐之后,波斯家庭通常会上一道多糖、高脂,还加了肉桂一类香料的热性甜点。 Khagineh── 一种把大煎饼撕成小片、浸在搀了番红花的糖浆里的点心──就是一例。

某些热性菜肴常常会配上或拌入优格一起食用。在我爷爷奶奶家的餐桌上,也总有一碗混了干燥苦橙皮碎末和姜(都是热性食材)的糖,好像我奶奶──他是个很棒的厨师──[做菜时]种种细心斟酌都还不够似的。我爷爷餐后几乎都会舀上一匙,可能是因为他觉得多数食物都是寒性的。

照片可以吃吗?

对于首次见识到伊朗大餐的人,其食物之丰盛可能会让人不知所措──但那并不妨碍许多波斯料理爱好者在 Instagram 上分享他们的美食照。

在这张由 Instagram 用户 shore.coli 所分享的照片中,有很多热性与寒性食物能满足各种需求:

Nature's bounty…from the sea to the mountains…an enjoyment of nature unique to Gilanis [people from the Northern Iranian province of Gilan]. Photo from one of our guests @vanilla.bakery.

大自然的赐予⋯⋯从山珍到海味⋯⋯[伊朗北部]吉兰省人(Gilanis)独享的大自然[恩赐]。我们一位客人在 @vanilla.bakery(香草烘焙坊)所拍摄的照片。

这张蚕豆饭──寒热妙搭──的照片,是由 Instagram 用户 foodie_express 上传的:

MAHICHE 🍗🍚──在番红花与番茄酱汁中慢炖至软嫩的羊腿,配上蚕豆与新鲜莳萝满满的波斯米饭#Persian(波斯) #Iran(伊朗) #mahiche(慢炖羊腿)#kebab(炖肉)#persianfood(波斯食物) #persianrice(波斯米饭) #nihari(带骨炖肉)

这张萝蔓芯蘸上薄荷醋糖浆(sekanjabin)的照片是由 Instagram 用户 vida.rahimzadeh 所分享:

 #Lettuce #sekanjabin [vinegar and mint syrup]…one of my best #memories ☺️😌. Do you also share that feeling 😉

#Lettuce(萝蔓)#sekanjabin [薄荷醋糖浆]⋯⋯我最美好的 #memories(回忆)之一 ☺️😌。你也感受到了吗 😉?

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